This was the ultimate punishment for any Catholic person or nation, excommunication was a way to restrict people from participating in the Catholic Church and being unable to receive sacraments. It wasn’t designed to punish or ban people from the church, but it was a way to make them struggle to repent from their sins. … Read moreExcommunication and the Fourth Crusade
One of the greatest things that the Papal States could do in the Middle Ages was declare ‘Holy War’ or a Crusade, on a specific nation, target, or group of people. This allowed for a period of relative peace within Europe as various Christian kings took up the sword and moved to defend their faith … Read moreThe Papal States and the Ottomans
At the beginning of 2018, the man known to the world as Benedict XVI wrote to the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera. The newspaper had approached him and asked how he was. His response was to acknowledge his frailty and that at 91 his life is in the last stages. He presents a picture of … Read moreOn a pilgrimage towards home
In August 2018 the Catholic Church was once more rocked by a sexual misconduct scandal. The charges were shocking; fundamentally that Popes Benedict XVI and Francis had been aware of the allegations against the D.C. archbishop Cardinal Theodore McCarrick before he (McCarrick) resigned earlier this summer. Other than to confirm that he was the author, … Read moreYou cannot talk about Pope Benedict without talking about the child abuse scandal
Pope Benedict XVI resigned from the papacy in 2013. It is a rare move. The idea of ‘the Pope’ is he represents an unbroken link back to the apostle Peter the first of all the popes. Christ personally said of Peter ‘on this rock I build my church’ and from there the popes have claimed … Read moreWhat did he know, what didn’t he?